Fresh Insights is a series of technical working papers that have been produced by the ‘Small-scale producers and standards in agrifood supply chains' project. These are fully referenced and peer reviewed - all are available both in freely downloadable pdf format and as paper copies from IIED.
by IIED & NRI
IIED and NRI have been working with DFID for the past three years to explore opportunities for more favourable outcomes for small producers in developing countries to participate in international horticultural supply chains, given the rise of private standards.This paper summarises the major findings and subsequently draws policy recommendations for retailers, exporters, donors, service providers and researchers. This summary links to source papers in two publication series: the two-page Fresh Perspectives, and full length Fresh Insights,
by Andrew Graffham
International marketing of fruits and vegetables to fulfil demand for exotic and out of season products offers a lucrative marketing opportunity for growers, and the market opportunities offered by the European Union are some of the most financially attractive. However, accessing EU markets requires compliance with a strict regulatory framework of measures designed to ensure human and plant health within the EU that sometimes go beyond the international requirements set under the SPS and TBT agreements administered by the World Trading Organisation. Many of the larger retailers and some wholesalers require suppliers to demonstrate compliance with independently verifiable private standards such as the European Retailers Protocol for Good Agricultural Practice (EUREPGAP) and the British Retail Consortiums (BRC) Global Technical Standard as this is an effective way of verifying that suppliers have the necessary management and control systems in place. This publication is designed as a supplier's guide to EU public and private sector requirements for imports of fruits and vegetables.
Fresh Insights 2 - Sub-Saharan African horticultural exports to the UK and climate change: a literature review
by Zoë Lelah Wangler
Growing environmental criticisms of air-transportation of fresh fruit and vegetables (FFV) have raised concerns that UK government objectives for ‘trade not aid' in sub-Saharan African (SSA) are in danger of being undermined. This study aims to provide baseline information and data relating to the scale and significance of horticulture production and exports from African countries in generating/ exacerbating/ driving environmental factors compared to production in other countries. Methodology is a literature survey and a comparative study of ‘food miles'. It ends with potential routes forward regarding research and policy engagement, especially around trade-offs between food miles and fair trade.
Fresh Insights 3 - Virtual water: a case study of green beans and flowers exported to the UK from Africa
by Stuart Orr and Ashok Chapagain
This study focuses on one particular aspect of global food trade assessing the significance of the virtual water trade for selected fresh products imported to the UK from African countries. Here we focus on two products, green beans and flowers, that are emblematic of a trade and development debate uniting Southern producers and Northern markets. The virtual water discussion given here provides the foundations of the virtual water concept and gives added context to this debate.
Fresh Insights 4 - A Lifecycle Analysis of UK Supermaket imported green beans from Kenya
by Andy Jones
This report represents an initial attempt to provide a background to green bean production in Kenya and UK imports of green beans, and baseline information and data relating to the scale and significance of green bean production and exports from African countries to the UK. It ends with a summary of main findings including ‘hot spots' in the supply chain for green beans, and potential routes forward in terms of research and policy engagement.
Fresh Insights 5 - Impact of EurepGAP on small-scale vegetable growers in Zambia
by Andrew Graffham and James Macgregor
Zambia is not an economically viable supplier for EU wholesale or other low value markets and therefore must rely on accessing retail markets (particularly involving UK supermarkets) that demand compliance with the European retailers. private standard for Good Agricultural Practices EurepGAP as the absolute minimum for market entry. Much of the evidence for problems with EurepGAP is anecdotal, for this reason a detailed cost-benefit analysis of EurepGAP implementation by small-scale growers is being conducted in Kenya, Uganda and Zambia. In Zambia the fieldwork was conducted by NRI and IIED working in collaboration with the NRDC-ZEGA Training Trust (NZTT). The overall objective was to identify, quantify and assess the range of costs and benefits associated with compliance with the EurepGAP standard in order to design policies for donors and standards-setters that are pro-poor and sustainable.
Fresh Insights 6 - Impact of EurepGAP on small-scale vegetable growers in Kenya
by Andrew Graffham, Esther Karehu and James Macgregor
This report aims to improve the understanding of the viability of small-scale growers in Kenyan export horticulture chains that include EurepGAP compliance criteria. To this end a methodology has been devised and piloted in Zambia employing a survey tool based around understanding the costs and benefits of EurepGAP compliance. For this work a survey of the outline costs and benefits of producing export crops in Kenya was undertaken with the aim to help answer this cost-benefit question, indicate trends and illustrate incentives for small-scale farmers to continue being part of EurepGAP.
The Natural Resources Institute
This report map sthe involvement of African smallholders in supplying produce to UK markets (with emphasis on detailed characterisation of UK markets) by determining origin of product, types of product, volumes, values and numbers of smallholders involved and destination markets. The study is important because there is strong evidence that exporters and importers are moving away from the smallest of growers, not because of product quality or productivity, but because of transaction costs associated with private retailer standards. At present, it is not clear whether production by small-scale farmers throughout Africa destined for export to retailers abroad can remain viable.
Fresh Insights 8: Ecological space and a low-carbon future -- crafting space for equitable economic development in Africa
by James Macgregor
The concept of "equitable ecological space" translates well into "per capita carbon dioxide emissions" and the "per capita right to emit carbon dioxide", as recognised under the Kyoto Protocol. Discussions about ecological space in light of developing country aspirations under the Kyoto Protocol brings equity to the forefront. This paper highlights the fact that carbon emissions are intimately linked with economic development, and underscores the need for developed countries to take action to reduce emissions. Importantly, it also corrals arguments in the other Briefing Notes in this series which focus on trade-offs between environmental and social impacts of export horticulture.
Fresh Insights 9: Fair Miles? Weighing environmental and social impacts of fresh produce exports from sub-Saharan Africa to the UK (Summary)
The consumer, as well as policy-maker, is often unaware of the environmental and social impacts associated with different choices and the extent to which this impact can vary for seemingly identical produce. This paper summarises a set of 4 short papers commissioned to better understand the significance and impact of the UK's consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables (FFV) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), in terms of energy, water, and ecological space.
Fresh Insights 10 - Impact of EurepGAP on small-scale vegetable growers in Uganda
by Ulrich Kleih, Fred Ssango, Florence Kyazze, Andrew Graffham, and James MacGregor
Uganda continues to benefit from export of niche products through wholesale channels to the EU, but there is concern that these are on the decline. The introduction of EurepGAP certification could enable access to these lucrative markets, but there are no guarantees of success. Uganda appears to be facing a difficult decision over the direction of investment in its export horticulture industry. On one hand, it could follow the high-cost route of EurepGAP compliance to gain access to lucrative markets. On the other hand, it could continue the non-EurepGAP route for the non-supermarket supply chains. Both choices offer risks and benefits, yet without concerted effort from the national-level industry, and complementary demand from EU trading partners, no change is likely.
Fresh Insights 11 - Trade, Development and Poverty: The Role of Air Freighted Horticultural Products
by Ben Groom and James MacGregor
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which trade via air freight offers an important catalyst for sustainable economic development and poverty reduction in poor countries.
Fresh Insights 12 - Opportunities for small-scale farmers in sub-Saharan Africa to supply the UK fresh fruit and vegetable markets
by Accord Associates LLP
In its continuing efforts to help reduce poverty in developing countries, DFID has tried to promote the international trade in horticultural produce grown by small-farmers. It has been suggested that there could be a good opportunity for small-farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa to supply fresh fruit and vegetables that have not met the certification standards demanded by the supermarkets. There has been only a very slow uptake by small-farmers to supply the markets that require, for example, EurepGAP-certified produce and therefore, it was decided to investigate the market opportunities for non-certified fruit and vegetables. The market opportunity was thoroughly researched in April and May 2007. The research concentrated on numerous trade and market interviews and an analysis of the import data.
Fresh Insights 13 - Costs and benefits of EurepGAP compliance for African smallholders: A synthesis of surveys in three countries
by IIED and NRI
Costs and benefits of EurepGAP compliance for African smallholders: A synthesis of surveys in three countries
Fresh Insights 14 - EurepGAP revisions 2007-2008: Implications of Version 3 for small-scale exporters of fresh fruit and vegetables in East Africa
by Jerry Cooper and Andrew Graffham
Exports of fresh produce can earn significant income for those smallholder growers in developing countries who have access to overseas markets. In the past the requirements to satisfy authorities and buyers were relatively relaxed and informal. Then demands for better control systems and management of food safety led to changes in legislation to reduce risk. Over and above these legal requirements, retailers in Europe then developed private standards to manage risk during farm production, processing and transportation. One such private standard - EurepGAP (now GlobalGAP) - was developed for and by European retailers to control on-farm production. The standard has established a reputation internationally and is being stipulated as a requirement by an increasing number of companies in more than 20 countries. It has now become widely recognised and is in many ways a useful ‘passport' for produce to enter the market. There are several operational advantages too, but Version 3 of EurepGAP sets the bar higher than Version 2 and will present greater challenges to growers unless agreements can be reached to mitigate these challenges.
Fresh Insights 15 - Small-scale farmers who withdraw from GlobalGAP: Results of a survey in Kenya
by Andrew Graffham, Jerry Cooper, Henry Wainright and James MacGregor
This report summarises the responses to a survey of smallholder farmers in Kenya who grow crops for export as fresh produce to Europe. The survey form consisted of around fifty questions exploring business, livelihoods and market access. It was carried out by members of a Kenyan company in three regions of Kenya from which significant exports of fresh produce take place to Europe. The survey canvassed 102 farmers on their businesses and particularly the factors affecting their access to the export market which in all cases involved sale through intermediaries. The survey involved only farmers that had been GlobalGAP (formerly named EurepGAP) certified but whose certification had lapsed, or farmers who had made preparations for GlobalGAP but had not completed the process of obtaining certification.
Fresh Insights 16 - Making GlobalGAP smallholder friendly
by Andrew Graffham and Jerry Cooper
Our surveys of smallholders in Kenya have shown that virtually all smallholders see many advantages in being GLOBALGAP compliant. They would like to be certified as long as problems with high costs and the complexity of some control points can be resolved. Similarly exporters said that smallholders were a valuable part of their export strategy and they do not wish to stop procuring from them. One exporter summed up the general level of concern as follows "We must put up a strong case for changes to the standard, otherwise we are going to wipe out the smallholder supply chain".
by Chris Anstey
The IIED/NRI/DFID project ‘Small-scale producers and standards in agri-food chains' has now concluded. During the interim review in November 2007, a new activity was identified to improve the impact of the project. This involved the development of a Training programme for buyers in the food industry to inform and build knowledge about international development issues.